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User-defined Templates

The most common scenario for user customization is to override the built-in templates with small modifications. That scenario's documentation is in our templating page, and differs from user-defined templates.

Prior to release 5.0.0, whenever a user wanted to include templates which weren't built-in or weren't known to the generator at compile time, they'd need to follow the more involved approach of creating a custom generator as documented later in this document. Beginning in 5.0.0, a user may now provide additional supporting files and extensions to built-in templates via configuration. This feature requires using the external configuration file feature.

Consider that you might want to add some static documentation such as and a custom tooling script. Rather than a single file for API definitions you also want an implementation file and a separate interface file for each.

You might have an external configuration file named config.yaml which defines additional properties like this for a kotlin client generator:

artifactId: kotlin-petstore-client
serializableModel: "true"
dateLibrary: java8

You would generate via CLI with the command:

openapi-generator generate -g kotlin -i spec.yaml -o outdir -c config.yaml

To support the above scenario with custom templates, ensure that you're pointing to your custom template directory and add a files node with template file definitions to your config:

templateDir: my_custom_templates
artifactId: kotlin-petstore-client
serializableModel: "true"
dateLibrary: java8
files: {}
templateType: API
destinationFilename: Interface.kt
templateType: API
destinationFilename: Impl.kt
folder: scripts
templateType: SupportingFiles

The keys under the files node are your template filenames. These honor the same resolution order as all other templates.

The above configuration will do the following:

  • Copy my_custom_templates/ to the generated output directory without processing via the template engine (due to template file extension). The empty object definition following allows the tool to infer the target output filename in the root of the output directory.
  • Compile a user-provided my_custom_templates/api_interfaces.mustache following our usual API template compilation logic. That is, one file will be created per API; APIs are generated defined according to tags in your spec documentation. The destination filename of Interface.kt will act as a suffix for the filename. So, a tag of Equipment will output a corresponding EquipmentInterface.kt.
  • Because api.mustache is the same mustache filename as used in your target generator (kotlin in this example), we support the following:
    • The destination filename provides a suffix for the generated output. APIs generate per tag in your specification. So, a tag of Equipment will output a corresponding EquipmentImpl.kt. This option will be used whether api.mustache targets a user customized template or a built-in template.
    • The built-in template will be used if you haven't provided a customized template. The kotlin generator defines the suffix as simply .kt, so this scenario would modify only the generated file suffixes according to the previous bullet point.
    • Your api.mustache will be used if it exists in your custom template directory. For generators with library options, such as jvm-okhttp3 in the kotlin generator, your file must exist in the same relative location as the embedded template. For kotlin using the jvm-okhttp3 library option, this file would need to be located at my_custom_templates/libraries/jvm-okhttp/api.mustache. See templating for more details.
  • Compile my_custom_templates/other/check.mustache with the supporting files bundle, and output to scripts/ in your output directory. Note that we don't currently support setting file flags on output, so scripts such as these will either have to be sourced rather than executed, or have file flags set separately after generation (external to our tooling).

The templateType option will default to SupportingFiles, so the option for other/check.mustache is redundant and provided to demonstrate the full template file configuration options. The available template types are:

  • API
  • APIDocs
  • APITests
  • Model
  • ModelDocs
  • ModelTests
  • SupportingFiles

Excluding SupportingFiles, each of the above options may result in multiple files. API related types create a file per API. Model related types create a file for each model.

Note that user-defined templates will merge with built-in template definitions. If a supporting file with the sample template file path exists, it will be replaced with the user-defined template, otherwise the user-defined template will be added to the list of template files to compile. If the generator's built-in template is model_docs.mustache and you define model-docs.mustache, this will result in duplicated model docs (if destinationFilename differs) or undefined behavior as whichever template compiles last will overwrite the previous model docs (if destinationFilename matches the extension or suffix in the generator's code).

Custom Generator (and Template)

If none of the built-in generators suit your needs and you need to do more than just modify the mustache templates to tweak generated code, you can create a brand new generator and its associated templates. OpenAPI Generator can help with this, using the `meta` command:
java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar meta \
-o out/generators/my-codegen -n my-codegen -p

This will create a new directory out/generators/my-codegen, with all the files you need to get started - including a Once modified and compiled, you can use your new codegen just like any other, with your own custom-rolled logic.

These names can be anything you like. If you are building a client for the whitespace language, maybe you'd use the options -o out/generators/whitespace -n whitespace. They can be the same, or different, it doesn't matter. The -n value will be become the template name.

NOTE Convention is to use kebab casing for names passed to -n. Example, scala-finatra would become ScalaFinatraGenerator.

Use your new generator with the CLI

To compile your library, enter the out/generators/my-codegen directory, run mvn package.

NOTE Running your custom generator requires adding it to the classpath. This differs on Windows slightly from unix. If you are running a Windows Subsystem for Linux or a shell such as gitbash, and have issues with the unix variant, try the Windows syntax below.

Now, execute the generator:

java -cp out/generators/my-codegen/target/my-codegen-openapi-generator-1.0.0.jar:modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar org.openapitools.codegen.OpenAPIGenerator

For Windows users, you will need to use ; instead of : in the classpath, e.g.

java -cp "out/generators/my-codegen/target/my-codegen-openapi-generator-1.0.0.jar;modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar" org.openapitools.codegen.OpenAPIGenerator

Note the my-codegen is an option for -g now, and you can use the usual arguments for generating your code:

java -cp out/generators/my-codegen/target/my-codegen-openapi-generator-1.0.0.jar:modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar \
org.openapitools.codegen.OpenAPIGenerator generate -g my-codegen \
-i \
-o ./out/myClient

For Windows users:

java -cp "out/codegens/customCodegen/target/my-codegen-openapi-generator-1.0.0.jar;modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar" \
org.openapitools.codegen.OpenAPIGenerator generate -g my-codegen \
-i \
-o ./out/myClient

Use your new generator with the maven plugin

Install your library to your local maven repository by running:

mvn clean install -f out/generators/my-codegen

This will install org.openapitools:my-codegen-openapi-generator:1.0.0 to your local maven repository.

You can use this as additional dependency of the openapi-generator-maven-plugin plugin and use my-codegen as generatorName value:

<!-- other configuration ... -->

If you publish your artifact to a distant maven repository, do not forget to add this repository as pluginRepository for your project.

Selective generation

You may not want to generate all models in your project. Likewise, you may want just one or two apis to be written. If that's the case, you can use system properties or global properties to control the output.

The default is to generate everything supported by the specific library. Once you enable a feature, it will restrict the contents generated:

# generate only models
--global-property models

# generate only apis
--global-property apis

# generate only supporting files
--global-property supportingFiles

# generate models and supporting files
--global-property models,supportingFiles

To control the specific files being generated, you can pass a CSV list of what you want:

# generate the User and Pet models only
--global-property models="User:Pet"

# generate the User model and the supportingFile ``:
--global-property models=User,

To control generation of docs and tests for api and models, pass false to the option. For api, these options are --global-property apiTests=false,apiDocs=false. For models, --global-property modelTests=false,modelDocs=false. These options default to true and don't limit the generation of the feature options listed above (like --global-property api):

# generate only models (with tests and documentation)
--global-property models

# generate only models (with tests but no documentation)
--global-property models,modelDocs=false

# generate only User and Pet models (no tests and no documentation)
--global-property models="User:Pet",modelTests=false

# generate only apis (without tests)
--global-property apis,apiTests=false

# generate only apis (modelTests option is ignored)
--global-property apis,modelTests=false

When using selective generation, only the templates needed for the specific generation will be used.

To skip models defined as the form parameters in "requestBody", please use skipFormModel (default to true) (this option is introduced at v3.2.2 and true by default starting from v5.0.0).

--global-property skipFormModel=true

This option will be helpful to skip model generation due to the form parameter, which is defined differently in OAS3 as there's no form parameter in OAS3

Ignore file format

OpenAPI Generator supports a .openapi-generator-ignore file, similar to .gitignore or .dockerignore you're probably already familiar with.

The ignore file allows for better control over overwriting existing files than the --skip-overwrite flag. With the ignore file, you can specify individual files or directories can be ignored. This can be useful, for example if you only want a subset of the generated code.


# OpenAPI Generator Ignore
# Lines beginning with a # are comments

# This should match located anywhere.

# Matches in the root

# Exclude all recursively

# Explicitly allow files excluded by other rules

# Recursively exclude directories named Api
# You can't negate files below this directory.

# When this file is nested under /Api (excluded above),
# this rule is ignored because parent directory is excluded by previous rule.

# Exclude a single, nested file explicitly

The .openapi-generator-ignore file must exist in the root of the output directory.

Upon first code generation, you may also pass the CLI option --ignore-file-override=/path/to/ignore_file for greater control over generated outputs. Note that this is a complete override, and will override the .openapi-generator-ignore file in an output directory when regenerating code.

Editor support for .openapi-generator-ignore files is available in IntelliJ via the .ignore plugin.

One may want to pre-populate .openapi-generator-ignore with a list of entries during the code generation process and the global/general option openapiGeneatorIgnoreList (e.g. --openapi-generator-ignore-list in CLI) can do exactly that. For example,

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g spring -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/petstore.yaml -o /tmp/spring --additional-properties useTags=true --openapi-generator-ignore-list ",pom.xml,docs/*.md,src/main/java/org/openapitools/model/*"

Customizing the generator

There are different aspects of customizing the code generator beyond just creating or modifying templates. Each language has a supporting configuration file to handle different type mappings, etc:

$ ls -1 modules/openapi-generator/src/main/java/org/openapitools/codegen/languages/
... (results omitted)

Each of these files creates reasonable defaults so you can get running quickly. But if you want to configure package names, prefixes, model folders, etc. you can use a json config file to pass the values.

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate \
-i \
-g java \
-o samples/client/petstore/java \
-c path/to/config.json

and config.json contains the following as an example:

"apiPackage" : "petstore"

You can use also config.yml with following equivalent example:

apiPackage: "petstore"

Supported config options can be different per language. Running config-help -g {lang} will show available options. These options are applied via configuration file (e.g. config.json or config.yml) or by passing them with -p {optionName}={optionValue}. (If -p {optionName} does not work, please open a ticket and we'll look into it)

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar config-help -g java


package for generated models

package for generated api classes
...... (results omitted)
library template (sub-template) to use:
jersey2 - HTTP client: Jersey client 2.6
feign - HTTP client: Netflix Feign 8.1.1. JSON processing: Jackson 2.6.3
okhttp-gson (default) - HTTP client: OkHttp 2.4.0. JSON processing: Gson 2.3.1
retrofit - HTTP client: OkHttp 2.4.0. JSON processing: Gson 2.3.1 (Retrofit 1.9.0)
retrofit2 - HTTP client: OkHttp 2.5.0. JSON processing: Gson 2.4 (Retrofit 2.0.0-beta2)
google-api-client - HTTP client: google-api-client 1.23.0. JSON processing: Jackson 2.8.9
rest-assured - HTTP client: rest-assured : 4.3.0. JSON processing: Gson 2.8.6. Only for Java8

Your config file for Java can look like


Or if you prefer yaml format it can look like

groupId: ""
artifactId: "MyClient"
artifactVersion: "1.2.0"
library: "feign"

For all the unspecified options default values will be used.

Another way to override default options is to extend the config class for the specific language. To change, for example, the prefix for the Objective-C generated files, simply subclass the

package com.mycompany.openapitools.codegen;

import org.openapitools.codegen.languages.*;

public class MyObjcCodegen extends ObjcClientCodegen {
static {

and specify the classname when running the generator:

-g com.mycompany.openapitools.codegen.MyObjcCodegen

Your subclass will now be loaded and overrides the PREFIX value in the superclass.

Bringing your own models

Sometimes you don't want a model generated. In this case, you can simply specify an import mapping to tell the codegen what not to create. When doing this, every location that references a specific model will refer back to your classes. Note, this may not apply to all languages...

To specify an import mapping, use the --import-mappings argument and specify the model-to-import logic as such:

--import-mappings Pet=my.models.MyPet

Or for multiple mappings:

--import-mappings Pet=my.models.MyPet,Order=my.models.MyOrder


--import-mappings Pet=my.models.MyPet --import-mappings Order=my.models.MyOrder

Name Mapping

One can map the property name using nameMappings option and parameter name using parameterNameMappings option to something else. Consider the following schema:

type: string
type: string
type: string
type: object

_type, type, type_ will result in property name collision in the Java client generator for example. We can resolve the issue using nameMappings by mapping _type to underscoreType, type_ to typeWithUnderscore.

Here is an example to use nameMappings and parameterNameMapping in CLI:

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/java/petstore-with-fake-endpoints-models-for-testing-okhttp-gson.yaml  -o /tmp/java2/ --name-mappings _type=underscoreType,type_=typeWithUnderscore, --parameter-name-mappings _type=paramType,type_=typeParam

To map model names, use modelNameMappings option, e.g.

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g csharp -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/petstore.yaml  -o /tmp/csharp/ --model-name-mappings Tag=Label

will rename the Tag schema to Label instead.

To map enum names, use enumNameMappings option, e.g.

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/petstore.yaml  -o /tmp/java/ --enum-name-mappings sold=UNAVAILABLE

will rename SOLD to UNAVAILABLE instead.

Not all generators support thess features yet. Please give it a try to confirm the behaviour and open an issue (ticket) to let us know which generators you would like to have this feature enabled and we'll prioritize accordingly. We also welcome PRs to add these features to generators. Related PRs for reference: #16209, #16234 (modelNameMappings), #16194, #16206 (nameMappings, parameterNameMappings), #17108 (enumNameMappings).

NOTE: some generators use baseName (original name obtained direclty from OpenAPI spec, e.g. shipping-date) mustache tag in the templates so the mapping feature won't work.

To map operationId (used in method naming) to something else, use operationIdNameMappings option, e.g.

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/petstore.yaml  -o /tmp/java/ --operation-id-name-mappings getPetById=returnPetById

will name the API method as returnPetById instead of getPetById obtained from OpenAPI doc/spec.

Schema Mapping

One can map the schema to something else (e.g. external objects/models outside of the package) using the schemaMappings option, e.g. in CLI

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/type-alias.yaml -o /tmp/java2/ --schema-mappings

Another example (in conjunction with --type-mappings):

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i /tmp/alias.yaml -o /tmp/alias/ --schema-mappings stream=org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.method.annotation.StreamingResponseBody --type-mappings string+binary=stream

while /tmp/alias.yaml is as follows:

openapi: 3.0.3
title: Demo app
version: 1.0.0
- url: /api/v1
summary: Demo
operationId: demo
description: Demo response
type: string
format: binary

Inline Schema Naming

Inline schemas are created as separate schemas automatically and the auto-generated schema name may not look good to everyone. One can customize the name using the title field or the inlineSchemaNameMapping option. For exmaple, run the following,

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i  modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/inline_model_resolver.yaml -o /tmp/java3/ --skip-validate-spec --inline-schema-name-mappings inline_object_2=SomethingMapped,inline_object_4=nothing_new

will show the following in the console:

[main] INFO  o.o.codegen.InlineModelResolver - Inline schema created as arbitraryObjectRequestBodyProperty_request. To have complete control of the model name, set the `title` field or use the inlineSchemaNameMapping option (--inline-schema-name-mappings in CLI).
[main] INFO o.o.codegen.InlineModelResolver - Inline schema created as meta_200_response. To have complete control of the model name, set the `title` field or use the inlineSchemaNameMapping option (--inline-schema-name-mappings in CLI).

For example, to name the inline schema meta_200_response as MetaObject, use the --inline-schema-name-mappings option as follows:

java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i  modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/inline_model_resolver.yaml -o /tmp/java3/ --skip-validate-spec --inline-schema-name-mappings meta_200_response=MetaObject,arbitraryObjectRequestBodyProperty_request=ArbitraryRequest

Another useful option is inlineSchemaOptions, which allows you to customize how inline schemas are handled or named

--inline-schema-options ARRAY_ITEM_SUFFIX=_array_item,MAP_ITEM_SUFFIX=_map_item,RESOLVE_INLINE_ENUMS=true
  • ARRAY_ITEM_SUFFIX sets the array item suffix
  • MAP_ITEM_SUFFIX set the map item suffix
  • SKIP_SCHEMA_REUSE=true is a special value to skip reusing inline schemas during refactoring
  • REFACTOR_ALLOF_INLINE_SCHEMAS=true will restore the 6.x (or below) behaviour to refactor allOf inline schemas into $ref. (v7.0.0 will skip the refactoring of these allOf inline schmeas by default)
  • RESOLVE_INLINE_ENUMS=true will refactor inline enum definitions into $ref

OpenAPI Normalizer

OpenAPI Normalizer transforms the input OpenAPI doc/spec (which may not perfectly conform to the specification) to make it workable with OpenAPI Generator. A few rules are switched on by default since 7.0.0 release:


(One can use DISABLE_ALL=true to disable all the rules)

Here is a list of rules supported:

  • REF_AS_PARENT_IN_ALLOF: when set to true, child schemas in allOf is considered a parent if it's a $ref (instead of inline schema).


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/allOf_extension_parent.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer REF_AS_PARENT_IN_ALLOF=true
  • REMOVE_ANYOF_ONEOF_AND_KEEP_PROPERTIES_ONLY: when set to true, oneOf/anyOf schema with only required properies only in a schema with properties will be removed. (example)


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/removeAnyOfOneOfAndKeepPropertiesOnly_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer REMOVE_ANYOF_ONEOF_AND_KEEP_PROPERTIES_ONLY=true
  • SIMPLIFY_ANYOF_STRING_AND_ENUM_STRING: when set to true, simplify anyOf schema with string and enum of string to just string


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/simplifyAnyOfStringAndEnumString_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer SIMPLIFY_ANYOF_STRING_AND_ENUM_STRING=true
  • SIMPLIFY_BOOLEAN_ENUM: when set to true, convert boolean enum to just enum.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/simplifyBooleanEnum_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer SIMPLIFY_BOOLEAN_ENUM=true
  • SIMPLIFY_ONEOF_ANYOF: when set to true, simplify oneOf/anyOf by 1) removing null (sub-schema) or enum of null (sub-schema) and setting nullable to true instead, and 2) simplifying oneOf/anyOf with a single sub-schema to just the sub-schema itself.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/simplifyOneOfAnyOf_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer SIMPLIFY_ONEOF_ANYOF=true
  • KEEP_ONLY_FIRST_TAG_IN_OPERATION: when set to true, only keep the first tag in operation if there are more than one tag defined.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/enableKeepOnlyFirstTagInOperation_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer KEEP_ONLY_FIRST_TAG_IN_OPERATION=true
  • SET_TAGS_FOR_ALL_OPERATIONS: when set to a string value, tags in all operatinos will reset to the string value provided.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/enableKeepOnlyFirstTagInOperation_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer SET_TAGS_FOR_ALL_OPERATIONS=another_tag_name
  • ADD_UNSIGNED_TO_INTEGER_WITH_INVALID_MAX_VALUE: when set to true, auto fix integer with maximum value 4294967295 (2^32-1) or long with 18446744073709551615 (2^64-1) by adding x-unsigned to the schema


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/addUnsignedToIntegerWithInvalidMaxValue_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer ADD_UNSIGNED_TO_INTEGER_WITH_INVALID_MAX_VALUE=true
  • REFACTOR_ALLOF_WITH_PROPERTIES_ONLY: When set to true, refactor schema with allOf and properties in the same level to a schema with allOf only and, the allOf contains a new schema containing the properties in the top level.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/allOf_extension_parent.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer REFACTOR_ALLOF_WITH_PROPERTIES_ONLY=true
  • REMOVE_X_INTERNAL: When set to true, remove x-internal extension from operations and models.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/enableKeepOnlyFirstTagInOperation_test.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer REMOVE_X_INTERNAL=true
  • FILTER: When set to operationId:addPet|getPetById for example, it will add x-internal:true to operations with operationId not equal to addPet/getPetById (which will have x-internal set to false) so that these operations marked as internal won't be generated.


java -jar modules/openapi-generator-cli/target/openapi-generator-cli.jar generate -g java -i modules/openapi-generator/src/test/resources/3_0/petstore.yaml -o /tmp/java-okhttp/ --openapi-normalizer FILTER="operationId:addPet|getPetById"